Graphic Notation Teaching Tool

This is designed for students with no experience of improvising. The idea is to start with just having one note and dots. Then dots and flat lines. Then gradually adding more notes.

It’s meant to fir the window width, so you may need to scroll sideways if you’re looking at this page with a sidebar.

Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag.
<form id="formElem">
  <label for "notes">Notes:</label>
  <input type="text" name="notes" id="notes" value="C, G">
  <label for "dots">Dots:</label>
  <input type="checkbox" id="dots" name="dots" value="1" checked>
   <label for="lines">Lines:</label>
<select name="lines" id="lines">
  <option value="0">None</option>
  <option value="1">Flat</option>
  <option value="2">Sloped</option>
  <label for "circles">Circles:</label>
  <input type="checkbox" id="circles" name="circles" value="1">

  <input type="submit">
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    ctx.strokeStyle = 'black';
    ctx.lineWidth = 5;

    // draw a red line
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    ctx.lineTo(x2, y2);
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     ctx.clearRect(0, 0, ctx.canvas.width, ctx.canvas.height);
    var allnotes = document.getElementById("notes").value;
    context.fillText(allnotes, 30, 60);
    var notes = allnotes.split(",");
    options = [];
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    var lines = document.getElementById("lines").value;
    if( lines != 0) {
   var circles = document.getElementById("circles").value;
    if( circles != 0) {
    if (options.length > 0 ) {
      drawScore(ctx, notes.length, 1, 0, 0, 0);

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    c.width = 0.99 * window.screen.availWidth; 
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    //context.fillText("<3", 100, 100);
    //drawScore(context, 1, 1, 0, 0);
    var options = [];
    formElem.onsubmit = async (e) => {



I blinked at the flash of light as the roar of white noise receded. I was standing in a lobby.

A man said my name and handed me a badge and some papers. “Your talk is at four tomorrow”.

The room swam and shimmied.

Another man steadied me. “Feeling a bit woozy? That should pass soon.”

I blinked and nodded, but he looked concerned. “Would you like a cup of tea?”

I nodded and he lead me to a folding chair.

“Do you have any shellfish allergies?”

“No, but I’m vegan.”

“Oh, well, we’ll get you a glass of water then. Do you have any friends here?”

“I don’t know.”

“Maybe you’d like to check into your hotel room? Are you staying at the Hilbert?” Without waiting he looked at my welcome pack. “Yes, you’re in room 1024. Why don’t you drop off your bags there now?”

An hour later, I stood much more steadily in the main convention hall. I was still blank on most details about arriving or even deciding to come, but I knew I was at CVQ Con. A legendary mix of academics, arts, industry, and cosplayers. Fans compared it to Burning Man and Comic Con mashed up with Coachella. I’d never been to any of those, but now I was in exhibit hall B, next to the Prion Disease booth! I surveyed the crowd excitedly. A queue snaked up to the prion booth, who were giving away free lobster slushies.

I frowned and decided to go to the most famous CVQ Con standby, the “bottomless” ball pit. The signs for the pit meandered around the hall like traversing an Ikea. I looked for a shortcut, but my printed map and the posted maps seemed to be mirror images of each other. I walked, following the signs, until I was again in front of the prion booth. Damn it. But, wait, didn’t the booth have a sign with black letters on a white background? This one had white letters on a black background. How many prion booths does one con need? I kept following the ball pit signs.

As I walked I looked at my phone. Social media revealed that I did have friends there, but mostly not people I knew in real life. “I’m on the grass, come find me,” Agatha posted. But where was the grass? Not only had I not seen any outdoor space since arriving, I hadn’t even seen anything that resembled an exterior wall. The centre seemed improbably huge.

I turned left and found myself in the food hall and suddenly realised I was starving. The first vendor sold lobster bisque. The second sold fried lobster sticks. The third, lobster cakes. Lobster burgers. Lobster dogs. A large banner proclaimed that the food was “Proudly Sponsored by International Lobster.” My head started to hurt.

I went to the nearest stall. “Can I just get a cup of black coffee?” I asked.

“Sure!” The barista started up the grinder.

“No lobster!” I joked.

The grinding stopped. “Oh, sorry.” she said. “We can’t do lobster-free coffee.”

“What?? Do you have tea?”

She looked apologetic, “Yes, but -”

“What in the hell?”

“International Lobster sponsored all the food this year. All of it. Even the vending machines.”

“Oh no.”

“There’s a food truck outside. Over the road by the grass.”

“Where is that?”

Another customer pushed in front of me. “If you’re not helping him, can I have a grande lobstercinno?”

“Coming right up!” said the barista cheerfully. The grinder started again, at least 5 times louder than before. A queue had formed behind me. Giving up, I turned to walk away and nearly crashed into somebody several centimetres shorter than I.

“Excuse me, are you Charles?” he said.

“Yes . . .”

“I recognise you from your profile picture on the fediverse! It’s nice to meet you in real life.”

“Oh, yeah, amazing! Sorry, who did you say you were?”


“Oh, uh, great.”

“Isn’t this incredible!!” he enthused.

“Yeah, it’s super cool. I’m kind of a bit hungry, though.”

“The lobster dogs are fantastic!”

“Yeah. I’m vegan. I don’t even know where to get a cup of tea.”

“Ohhhhh” he thought “I actually came for the lobster tea. It’s really good. If you like lobster, I mean.”

“Uh, ok.”

“Say, have you been to the bottomless ball pit? I heard it was closed because somebody peed in it. But then somebody else said it was filling up with lobster.”


“Not food!” he clarified. “Apparently the basement of the centre is International Lobster’s main processing facility. All the pipes running everywhere are pneumatic lobster tubes.”

I looked at a nearby pillar which did have some large pipes attached to it.

“If you put your ear to them, you can hear the lobsters whizzing by.” He placed his ear on the pipe and, unsure what to think, I also had a listen. After a moment, there came a rattling zing, as if something had quickly swept by. “Did you hear that?” He exclaimed. “It’s their pressurised lobster system! It’s revolutionised the shellfish industry!”

“Wow.” I laughed nervously.

“Anyway, I heard that one of the pipes under the ball pit ruptured and it’s been filling up with lobsters.”

“That sounds bad.”

“If it keeps up, they’ll have to evacuate the centre!”

As he spoke, a klaxon rang out overhead. “Would guests please proceed to the nearest exit” said a posh, pre-recorded voice.

“What did I tell you!” BeatCruelEatcha said proudly. “Are you staying at the Hilbert? The monorail station to the hotel is just to the left there.”

I woke up the next morning with a hangover that could inspire epic poetry. I don’t normally drink, but there had been mead. Little food. Arguments about Marxism. Furries? I found alka seltzer laid out on my bedside label next to a scrawled note I couldn’t read.

Half an hour later, I saw it said “4pm paper”. Oh god, the paper. What was it about? Had I even written it? I found half a slide presentation on my computer and the details slowly came back to me. I made more slides.

Microsoft teams chimed to life. “Good luck on your paper!” said a message from my boss. The fan on my computer started racing. Oh no! I switched back to my presentation software to hit control-S but the windowing system froze on the Teams alert. The fan reached supersonic speeds. The screen went black, the presentation changes lost forever.

Ninety minutes later, presentation sorted, but feeling very woozy, I bought a faux lobster roll from the takeaway just outside the train station. It seemed to squirm in my hands and wriggled free, falling to the ground and rolling into a storm grate as I heard my train arrive. They only came every half an hour. I ran for the platform, but it pulled away as I cleared the ticket gates.

I went to the station guard. “Can I get out to get a snack while I wait for the next train.”

“You’d have to buy another ticket.”

“What, really?”

“Sorry, company policy.”

I sat and my head spun. I couldn’t do a day of no food with a head like this. I looked up at the sky in despair and it seemed purplish. The banner over the platform said “Welcome to CVQCon2023.”

BeatCruelEatcha, sat down next to me. He’d grown a full beard since I’d seen him the previous night. “You too, eh?”

“What?” I noticed a lobster on the platform. It seemed to glance at a wrist watch. Another lobster came to stand next to it. It was holding a tiny newspaper.

“The fast train that just left – it’s temporal flux adjuster is out of alignment. It’s cast us all into 2023.” He gestured at the large, white blank spot floating in front of me. “It’s why those voids are everywhere. 2023 isn’t built yet.” A train honked in the distance. “That’s our train,” he said standing up. The honking got louder and louder.

I open my eyes to the insistent beeping of my alarm. I don’t normally drink, but I had a hangover that could inspire epic poetry. On my bedside table was some alka seltzer and a note I couldn’t read.

Half an hour later, I was making slides for a presentation, pressing save after every change. Just as I finished, my boss sent a Teams message wishing me luck. The computer crashed and I left my room. I was half way to the train station when I realised I hadn’t brought my ID badge and went back for it.

I bought a faux lobster roll outside the station and dropped it. I heard the train coming, but missed it. I sat down with an overwhelming sense of deja vu.

A woman sat down next to me. “Are you Charles?” She asked. “Actually, I know you’re Charles. I met you last night, but I have a feeling you might not remember.”

I frowned. “I’ve had a totally mundane but entirely peculiar morning.”

“I can imagine. Anyway, last night, you asked me to remind you that there’s vegan food next to the bottomless ball pit, which is next to the room where your paper is.”

“Isn’t the ball pit full of lobsters?”

“What? It’s full of bottoms. Every year, people think this is the funniest joke, too many people pile in and it breaks. Again.”

“I see.”

“Also, your paper time has changed. You should head straight to the room when you arrive.”

“Thank you! You’re very helpful!”

“I the chair of your paper session. I’ve also had an odd morning. I had the most incredible dream about our session topic.”


“I’ve thrown away all my notes and am going to relay my dream instead!”

The room with the paper session was mostly empty and seemed to throb with hangover. I kept thinking I saw lobsters from the corners of my eyes.

With great enthusiasm, the chair launched into the presentation from her dream. Like everything else that day it seemed familiar. Too familiar. It was the first half of my paper!

I blinked in disbelief, with no idea what to do. Everyone was looking at me. Not because they knew what had happened but because it was now my turn to talk. I panicked. “Um, following on from that . . .” I skipped to my new slides and started from the middle.

“Poppycock!” someone shouted.

I squinted at the audience. There were only about three people there. “Excuse me?”

“This is completely derivative and utterly mundane.”

I couldn’t tell who was speaking. From the corner of my eye, I thought I saw my dropped breakfast tumble past. The fire alarm went off.

“Oh, this is another dream” I said into the microphone.

“Would guests please proceed to the nearest exit” said a posh pre-recorded voice.

I waited to wake up.

“You need to evacuate” said the paper chair.

“I’m certain I must be dreaming right now.”

“That may be so, but you still need to evacuate.”

We walked single file into a corridor and down the stairs. A faux lobster roll bounced along side me.

“Sorry, I dropped my breakfast” said a man behind me. It was BeatCruelEatcha, clean shaven.

“Is two alarms in two days normal for this event?” I asked him.

“Oh no, not at all.”

“That’s good.”

“It’s normally much higher.”

“I think I’m going home.”

“Oh, but you’ll miss the dancing lobster!”

“I’m too hung over for this.”

“I’m not surprised.”

I thought for a moment. “Lobsters aren’t normally a dancing species, are they? I mean, don’t they usually just scuttle?”

We reached the pavement. I looked up at the convention centre and saw flames coming from the windows.

I arrived home the next morning. “You’re back early!” my spouse said, “How did you paper go?”

“I got heckled by a lobster roll and then the convention centre burned to the ground.”

“I thought you were vegan?”

“It was faux lobster.”

“Oh, that reminds me. A bunch of postcards arrived for you while you were gone. I’m not sure what they’re about.”

On the table there was a stack of at least 20 vintage postcards, mostly bearing the names of towns in Maine. They all had pictures of lobsters. “Poppycock!” they said.

“What the fuck?”

“There’s one more.”

This one had a picture of Dali’s lobster phone. “I found your paper to be very salient and was disappointed when you were interrupted.” Like the others, it was unsigned.

“When did these arrive?”

“Yesterday morning.”

“What? All of them?”

“Oh no. The Dali one arrived earlier.”

“Are you sure?”

She shrugged and went to to answer a knock at the door. “Did you order this?” I heard her call to me.

A delivery driver was at the door with five cases of lobster. I looked at the labels. “These are for next door.”

“As I was just saying, your neighbour asked if you could take them if they’re not in.” said the driver.

“Yeah, fine” I said. The boxes were vented on the sides and I peered into them. The lobsters were alive. One of them was wearing a wrist watch. “What the hell?”

“Keep them in a cool place, out of direct sunlight.”

“It’s wearing a wristwatch!”

The driver gave me a look. “They have rubber bands to keep them from pinching you, but you should still avoid sticking your fingers in the boxes.”

“You don’t seem yourself” said my spouse when we were back at the table.

“I feel like I’m seeing lobster everywhere.”

“It’s just a coincidence.”

“No, I mean out of the corners of my eyes. In the train stations, under our bed, lurking in the dark.”

The lobsters in their boxes all started to move.

“They’re dancing.” I said.


So this is the time of (the Jewish) year when one is meant to apologise for one’s misdeeds.

As someone raised Catholic, I just have a fee-floating sense of guilt that I’ve probably wronged or at least annoyed everyone in my proximity at least once over the year.

Obviously, one apologises as things arise, so the point of this season is trying to perhaps become aware of ongoing or systemic things I might be doing? I’m not sure. This is why I’m reading so many books, trying to get a sense of the milieu and philosophical underpinnings of Jewish thought.

I feel like teshuvah is an especially good thing for addressing issues in relationships (or in tight-knit communities, which is where many practises arose). Often, my spouse hasn’t told me about weekend plans and I get annoyed, but also I didn’t ask. Forgetting to ask is very much an ongoing thing for me. It’s not just manners, but it also risks creating the impression that I’m not interested. I am interested and I could communicate that better.

So in the coming year, I think I should be a more active listener. Most of my friends just volunteer what they’re up to instead of waiting for the polite question that never comes and I appreciate that, but I could be better on this.

Laptop and Tuba

This post is taken from the lightening talk I gave at AMRO


I have decided to try to solve a problem that I’m sure we’ve all had – it’s very difficult to play a tuba and program a computer at the same time. A tuba can be played one-handed but the form factor makes typing difficult. Of course, it’s also possible to make a tuba into an augmented instrument, but most players can only really cope with two sensors and it’s hard to attach them without changing the acoustics of the instrument.

The solution to this classic conundrum is to unplug the keyboard and ditch the sensors. Use the tuba itself to input code.


Constructed languages are human languages that were intentionally invented rather than developing via the normal evolutionary processes. One of the most famous constructed languages is Esperanto, but modern Hebrew is also a conlang. One of the early European conlangs is Solresol, invented in 1827 by François Sudre. This is a “whistling language” in that it’s syllables are all musical pitches. They can be expressed as notes, numbers or via solfèdge.

The “universal languages” of the 19th century were invented to allow different people to speak to each other, but previously to that some philosophers also invented languages to try to remove ambiguity from human speech. These attempts were not successful, but in the 20th century, the need to invent unambiguous language re-emerged in computer languages. Programming languages are based off of human languages. This is most commonly English, although many exceptions exist, including Algol which was always multilingual.


I decided to build a programming language out of Solresol, as it’s already highly systematised and has an existing vocabulary I can use. This language, Domifare is a live coding language very strongly influenced by ixi lang, which is also written in SuperCollider. Statements are entered by playing tuba into a microphone. These can create and modify objects, all of which are loops.

Creating an object causes the interpreter to start recording immediately. The recording starts to play back as a loop as soon as the recording is complete. Loops can be started, stopped or “shaken”. The loop object contains a list of note onsets, so when it’s shaken, the notes played are re-ordered randomly. A future version may use the onsets to play synthesised drum sounds for percussion loops.

Pitch Detection

Entering code relies on pitch tracking. This is a notoriously error-prone process. Human voices and brass instruments are especially difficult to track because of the overtone content. That is to say, these sounds are extremely rich and have resonances that can confuse pitch trackers. This is especially complicated for the tuba in the low register because the overtones may be significantly louder than the fundamental frequency. This instrument design is useful for human listeners. Our brains can hear the higher frequencies in the sound and use them to identify the fundamental sound even if it’s absent because it’s obscured by another sound. For example, if a loud train partially obscures a cello sound, a listener can still tell what note was played. This also works if the fundamental frequency is lower than humans can physically hear! There are tubists who can play notes below the range of human hearing, but which people perceive through the overtones! This is fantastic for people, but somewhat challenging for most pitch detection algorithms.

I included two pitch detection algorithms, one of which is a time based system I’ve blogged about previously and the other is one built into SuperCollider using a technique called autocorrelation. Much to my surprise, the autocorrelation was the more reliable, although it still makes mistakes the majority of the time.

Other possibilities for pitch detection might include tightly tuned bandpass filters. This is the technique used by David Behrman for his piece On the Other Ocean, and was suggested by my dad (who I’ve recently learned built electronic musical instruments in 1960s or 70s!!) Experimentation is required to see if this would work.


Another possible technique likely to be more reliable is AI. I anticipate this could potentially correctly identify commands more often than not, which would substantially change the experience of performance. Experimentation is needed to see if this would improve the piece or not. Use of this technique would also require pre-training variable names, so a player would have to draw on a set of pre-existing names rather than deciding names on the fly. However, in performance, I’ve had a hard time deciding on variable names on-the-fly anyway and have ended up with random strings.

Learning to play this piece already involves a neural learning process, but a physical one in my brain, as I practice and internalise the methods of the DomifareLoop class. It’s already a good idea for me to pre-decide some variable names and practice them so I have them ready. My current experience of performance is that I’m surprised when a command is recognised and play something weird for the variable name and am caught unawares again when the loop begins immediately recording. I think this experience would be improved for the performer and the listener with more preparation.

Performance Practice

The theme for AMRO, where this piece premiered was “debug”, so I included both pitch detection algorithms and left space to switch between them and adjust parameters instead of launching with the optimal setup. The performance was in Stadtwerkstadt, which is a clubby space and this nuance didn’t seem to come across. It would probably not be compelling for most audiences.

Audience feedback was entirely positive but this is a very friendly crowd, so negative feedback would not be within the community norms. Constructive criticism also may not be offered.

My plan for this piece is to perform it several more times and then record it as part of an album tentatively titled “Laptop and Tuba” which would come out in 2023 on the Other Minds record label. If you would like to book me, please get in touch. I am hoping that there is a recording of the premiere.

Community servers

live blogging AMRO

where have all the servers gone?

Aileen used to run a home LAN which grew into a home server, hosting 60 domains. Domains belong to people. Human relationships are central to all community projects.

Art spaces used to require community ISPs. Some of these have migrated to do hosting for art orgs. Some have migrates to hosting individual artists or collectives.

Some groups use servers as a part of feminist practice, knowledge sharing and collective empowerment. Feminist servers can be intergenerational. They can have joyfulness, reflection, and peer support.

There are still different wants to think about where and how to do servers. Always-on is not necessarily the most important value for arts servers.

Homebew self-hosting is cool again! There are collectives of people doing this. runs a proper data centre. Theyare a membership organisation. They also do operate as service that aims at reliability.

Sharing tech knowledge is a particular skill that not all techies possess.

There are dualities in trying to run an NGO in a capitalist space like the internet. Values about uptime and so forth cause friction. Things break and people get frustrated, so there is serious emotional labour in relationship-based tech services. They are trying to use tools made for profit on a non profit context.

What is the relationship between the server and the community?

User education is important. “The server is a.physical thing. We blew a fuse. Please stand by.”

One group has a mobile raspberry-pi based server. It is currently downstairs. When its on trains, its offline.

ISPs have histories. People working at them encounter users at moments of errors.

Knowledge transmission is always incomplete. Servers are complex and documentation is hard.

Capitalism is an inescapable context. The contradiction this creates is never resolved. Fixing servers can be hard or boring or frustrating.

What if computing was seasonal?

Community server NGOs are chronically underfunded. Membership organisations doing servers make members part owners. This gives a meaningful relationship with the infrastructure and reliability in terms of organisational stability. And data sovereignty.

Self hosting is not safer in terms of data reliability. Back up your data. If the data is necessary for you, then form a plan to preserve it.

How have things changed since serves was founded? People want to form collectives, but its unapid time and effort to document things.

Embrace, extend, extinguish fucks up stable protocols and makes things harder to maintain. Free software companies are also capitalist.

Systems can become hacks upon hacks upon hacks. Even Foss projects can chase shiny overcomplexity. Some building blocks may be politically neutral but systemic tools reflect capitalist values.

Thank your sysadmin!

Systerserver exists for people to learn. They have a system for shared command line sessions so everyone shares a terminal.

A matonaut is now reminiscing about the 90s and that era of websites. In the old days these collectives were about giving access. But now it seems like a lifestyle choice.

arts servers have greater longevity than community servers due to more sustainable funding models. (Oh, to be European!)

Q: Has the war in the Ukraine effected solidarity networks in hosting? What about circumventing blocks? Guides for activists now in effected regions are howto exploit gaps, not how to host. Telegram somehow allows a way to create proxies. This creates dependencies on corporations like Amazon, telegraph etc. How can we regain agency? Can we communalism proxies?

A: Activists in Rotterdam started building up resources. But there’s so much fragmentation. Will USB sticks be a thing? Some activists are still using Facebook because it feels safer than many mastodon servers.

Could mirroring be a useful practice?

What kind of resource sharing would help support community servers? We don’t wish to be islands!

Documentation/ information sharing can be helpful.. Store playbooks in git repos.

the era of websites shoukd be over. Nobody needs websotes any more. We should move on and make text services for text.

its time for an attitude change. Changing philosophy can change terminology can change philosophy can create situated knowledge. We can use this change in mindset to slow down.

Linux community’s are corporatised and isolating.

Q: Ate feminist server communities a service?

A: partially. Artists are relying on etherpad and some other services. There is a syster server mastodon instance.

Farmasoft quit serving schools during the pandemic because they did not have the resources to sustain that useage level. This had implications for teachers who were trying to avoid google docs. But also, it was an emergency and they didn’t have the resource. When should money get involved in these processes?

Data Journalism

libe blogging AMRO

The Evolution of Data Christo Buschek

He does data driven investigation. They won the Pulitzer prize last year.

Data has been using data since the 70s. They used to mostly do statistics. The new idea is data-driven where they use data to discover things.

Human rights research is also often data driven investigation. This is a collaborative process involving technology, design, etc

The process is preservation, exploration, verification and narration

He and some collaborators tried to discover how many people are imprisoned in China in Xinjang. They found camps big enough to hold a million people.

Theystarted knowing that some camps existed, but not much else. Journalists had no access to the region.

Baidu Maps is the Chinese mapping service like google maps. They censor some areas by loading the image and then loading a white box over it. So the journalists decided to first look at censored squares.

They had three types of tiles. Satellite pictures. Watermark images that have no data. And censorship images.

he wrote a script that emulated a human noodling around and ran it across a cluster.

Of 50 million tiles. 5 million were masked. They decided to look for infrastructure that could support camps. This reduced the tiles to 800k.

The next step was verification. This is a human process that takes time. Verification subjects data to due process. It is a creative process.

He wrote a tool for researchers to annotate metadata. They built a rubrick as they looked at the data.

428 locations bear the hallmarks of prisons and detention centres. Around 2017ish structures became permanent.

they had three categories: certain, like and unsure. Certain ones had external verification.

Their output was articles and the data set which was then also used by others. A local activist/ journalist travelled to some of the camps and filmed them.

Christo built the method and tools. He says that humans shapes tools and tools shape humans. He says technology is not neutral. Toolsencode systems of values. He notes that Silicon Valley is extremely ideological. Their tools do not reflect our values. We must make our own tools.

Our tools and systems reflect our social structures. Our communities are organised as open-ended gatherings. Collaboration is central. Tools are.nodes in networks.

Any tool is a positive choice and also a negative trade off of what it can’t do.

investigating border violence, fostering mobility justice: (in)visibilities of arieal surveillance

live blogging AMRO

The Mediterranean isbecoming a militarised border.

Border Forensics is looking at border violence and policing. They are documenting this violence. They rely some on human rights reports and try to augment them with visible data. They are part of network of forensic organisations creating documentation and demanding investigation.

The “left to die” boat was a rubber raft that was tracked leaving Tripoli. They called for help and then entered the Maltese search and rescue zone. 9 out of 72 people died after their boat ran out of fuel and was left to drift for weeks until it drifted back to Tripoli. They had a legal right to assistance and.multiple contacts with state authorities.

A ship wreck in April of last year had 130 passengers which radioed for help and spoke to alarm phone. Alarm phone contacted the EU border frontex, who sighted the boat, but did not help. The Libyan coast card intercepted them and did not help. A merchant boat passed closeby but also didn’t help.

Merchabt boats began to search for them overnight, but nothing was seen until wreckage and bodies were found.

These cases were ten years apart. They were both in a highly surveiled area. Airplanes doing border patrol saw both boats.

There are no survivors from April and thus no witness testimony.

In those ten years, there’s been a shift from sea to sky. Aircraft are used to surveil, but can’t rescue people or bring them to Europe. The duty of rescue only legally applies to boats. The planes radio Libya who capture and mistreat the would-be migrants.

In 2014 Mare Nostrum saved thousands of lives but couldn’t get EU funding. Frontex Operation Tritone was cheaper and covered a smaller area. Their budget got bigger and bigger. In 2018 they launched a new mission, with far fewer naval assets, relying more and more on planes and drones.

Italy and the EU have paid Libya to increase its coverage area.

Frontex is difficult to research and its hard to FOI them.

The presence of drones but the absence of boats is a form of structural violence.

Policies and decisions are also not transparent.

Frontex’s drone is also hard to perceive.

There’s a link between aerial surveillance and increased interception. They want to map their data.

Cross referencing aerial data with geolocation data from the boat is a major technical challenge.

Frontex uses what’s app to contact the Libyan coast guard.

Frontex uses a heron drone. Its hard to tell if a drone has seen a boat on distress by looking at the track. The track also is fragmented. The drone thus escapes oversight.

Aerial surveillance was an infrastructure decision that shows a policy of structural violence. They attempt to escape accountability.

Activism and demanding accountability is the most usefulthing to do.

Toxic Stories

Live blogging AMRO.

e-waste arrives by the trtruckload in some Indian cities. This is disassembled. Another group of people will try to retrieve metals using dangerous, polluting processes. More workers will smelt the reclaimed.metal. They make faucets and like connectors.

However, thrre is a lot of waste and runoff. This is dangerous. Metals end up in top soil.

Yoir smart phone is 54% metal. Mining these causes massive pollution. More than 81% of this metal ends up in an unknown place after being in your phone. Every year, we make 50 millions of e-waste. This is the size of Manhattan.

The US recycles less than 10% of ewaste. Europe is better. (Maybe). The value of the materials in the waste is very high.

e waste is generated in the global north and exported to the global south.

Making computers needs water, fuel and metal. Making chips uses.much more energy than the computer will consume in power consumption during its life.

E waste ends up I’m Acra, where people liveamongst the waste. Workers burn computers to access metals. They were given machines to strip cables, but sold them.

Post industrial pollution also exists in Austria. Old factories have toxic soil and ground water pollution. Some of these toxic places are used by dogwalkers. Could hyperaccumulators help?

Some of the plants are non native and don’t cope well with Austrian weather. But if it did, this would be invasive.

Serpentine soil has toxic dust.

Toxic stories is a collection of an audio archive of people working in remediation.

Earthworm traffic moves soil around which makes toxins hard to measure.

Q: Is gold recycled from e waste because its valuable or because its easy?

A: Different methods get some materials while sacrificing others. So gold may be prioritised. Informal recycling has poor recovery rates. Recycling also is energy intensive.

Recycling could maybe be enabled by making it the responsibility of the producer.

Q: How is labour connected to pollution?

A: Labour conditions in recycling in India is exploitative. Poor people work in dire conditions. The work environment is terrible in Ghana, but displaced rural workers find it an accessible job. Young people aren’t worried are about their health when they start. Its like smoking, said one person.

Q: How has global capital pushed ewaste onto poor countries? Can we change that?

A: There are EU regulations and policies requring European ewaste to be recycled in Europe. But unethical traders claim that they are selling second hand computers. A lot of trash ends up in west Africa.

Capitalism requires inequality. We couldn’t “afford- cheap stuff if we paid globally fair wages. This has implications with regards to externalities, mining, pollution and environmental stewardship.

Recyclers now also have working smartphones.

The price of nickel has spiked in the last year. Hyperaccumulators allow more possibilities for mining as it doesn’t look like mining.

Q: What if you had clothes as a service? Do we own our computers or phones if we can’t modify it? Is there a tradeoff where wecan meaningfully control our phones if we don’t own them?

A: The European Green Deal includes extended producer responsibility. However, meaningful recycling access will need design changes that take end of life into account. Goods should be disassemablable.

India has an ewaste law that’s been in place for years. NGOs had to sue producers. The producers, however, use the informal sector to meet recycling targets. On paper everything is perfect.

Comment: Reduce is the first word in reduce reuse recycle. Badly written software drives the upgrade cycle. Linux is part of the answer.

(In the UK, poor people did not want refurbished linux laptops because it made them feel stigmatised.)


libe blogging AMRO

There is no waste in a circular economy. Plants cannhelp reutilise waste.

A broken food chain requires petrochemicals for inputs, production and transport. Food waste and human waste ends up land filled.

in an intact system, waste is remediated into fertiliser. This is transported by unspecified methods to small local farms. Humans get food via bicycles. The energy storage and input for processing etc is also unspecified.

Some plantsbare hyperaccumulators. They can, say absorb metals to make them harvestable for recycling. Plants also filter air pollution, clean water, and make oxygen. These are Plant Powers!

Hyperaccumulators are not food plants. Argomining can help us collect nickel There’s a British tree that’s up to 25% nickel. Many hyperaccumulators are grasses. The soils are often not very productive, so switching farms to these grasses is good for farmers. However monoculture is not sustainable. And sometimes capitalists get carried away with extraction.

We don’t actually know how the plant gets so metallic. The metal is stored in the leaves. This might have evolved to deter herbivores.

This is being field tested in Oregon, where they are trying to make bigger versions of the plant.

Under capitalism, this needs to compete with normal mining. This impacts sustainability. The plant hybrid was patented. However it is not commercialised at scale.

The plant requires water, mayber fertiliser and harvesting, so its still farmed.

Most species of plants only take up one metal. If you have multiple metal types, you’ll need different plants.

Canola absorbs selenium. California is full of bio mobilised selenium and pollutes water. So canola may absorb it, and make canola oil you don’t want to eat. However, it can be used for bio diesel. And the greens are fine for animal food.

Prickly pears!

Theres a wee tree that can deal with salinated soil and makes latex rubber.

California is fucked. Its low on water and we poisoned the land. Maybe Austrian scientists can save us.